SOIA E SALUTE

SOIA SICURA

 

Molto spesso la gente si spaventa per notizie nebulose che appaiono su internet, in molti casi la soia viene vista con terrore e magari le stesse persone mangiano invece con tranquillità carne rossa, oppure fumano oppure si riempiono di latticini e mangiano al fast food. Quando gli si chiede da dove provengono le fonti allarmistiche allora le risposte sono vaghe del tipo “si dice” oppure lo letto sui social e su internet, le nuove bibbie di informazione, senza verificare la fonte ed gli eventuali studi. Questo mio post vuole essere un tentativo di risposta non basata su opinioni personali ma citando le fonti, gli studi. (tutti gli articoli si trovano su pubmed)

E per chi mangia carne e pensa di non mangiare soia, in realtà ne mangia molta di più e contribuisce a deforestare il pianeta.

 

Wwf: non “mangiamoci” l’Amazzonia “La soia per allevamenti è la causa della deforestazione”

I dati

Negli ultimi 50 anni si è già perso quasi un quinto della superficie della foresta amazzonica per la produzione di soia, sì perchè la soia è l’ingrediente principale dei mangimi per animali. Se il 6% della soia prodotta al mondo è destinata direttamente al consumo umano, circa tre quarti vengono invece utilizzati per l’alimentazione animale, soprattutto per pollame e suini (per produrre 1 chilogrammo di carne suina vengono utilizzati 263 grammi di soia, ben 575 per il pollo, 173 per il manzo e 307 un analogo quantitativo di uova) . La soia, la sua coltivazione è la maggiore responsabile della deforestazione in Brasile e Bolivia, insieme con l’espansione dei pascoli per il bestiame allevato, gli incendi, il disboscamento legale e illegale, la costruzione di strade asfaltate e il degrado causato dai cambiamenti climatici in atto. Gli impatti esterni della produzione di soia, come l’inquinamento dei corsi d’acqua da prodotti agrochimici e l’erosione del suolo, hanno avuto anch’essi un impatto sugli ecosistemi naturali.

 

Ma oltre a questo c’è la riconversione dei terreni da pascolo. Mentre questo ha il potenziale per essere parte della soluzione, vi è il pericolo che possa contribuire indirettamente alla deforestazione spingendo la produzione di bestiame all’interno della foresta .

Se i tassi di deforestazione degli ultimi decenni continuassero ai ritmi attuali, quasi un quarto della restante foresta amazzonica potrebbe essere persa entro i prossimi 30 anni e il 37% entro i prossimi 50 anni. Stime più pessimistiche indicano come oltre la metà (55%) potrebbe essere persa nei prossimi 20 anni perchè l’aumento della domanda di prodotti agricoli innesca un circolo vizioso di feedback climatico che prevede, per esempio, l’aumento della siccità e degli incendi boschivi.

 

 

Il paradosso dell’obesità

“Parlando di alimentazione, il momento storico che stiamo attraversando vede lo scontro tra fame e obesità, miseria e abbondanza, produzione e consumo quali aspetti dello stesso problema che uniscono malnutrizione, povertà, sicurezza alimentare, salute e sprechi, quest’ultimo vero oltraggio morale e ambientale. Oggi secondo la Fao la produzione agricola mondiale attuale potrebbe nutrire 12 miliardi di esseri umani, quasi il doppio di quelli attualmente presenti sul pianeta e il cibo che viene sprecato potrebbe alleviare la fame delle popolazioni malnutrite del pianeta (basterebbe per alimentare l’intera popolazione dell’Africa Sub-Sahariana) e ridurre gli inutili impatti ambientali che la sua produzione e smaltimento determinano” ha dichiarato Eva Alessi responsabile sostenibilità Wwf Italia.

 

 

 

SOIA E SALUTE

Cominciamo dai più recenti, inizio con questa review, le review sono importanti perché si tratta di una revisione di tutti gli studi clinici fatti fino al momento della pubblicazione, basta citare su PubMed le parole chiave Soy cancer ed appare una serie lunga di articoli scientifici che possono mettere tranquillità all’uso di questo legume, non dico di consumarne troppa e tutti i giorni anche se alcuni studi rivelano tranquillità anche in questo caso, ma non c’è nessun allarme, ne per cancro ne per problemi alla tiroide, a consumarne, anzi il contrario

 

Nutrients. 2016 Nov 24;8(12). pii: E754.

Soy and Health Update: Evaluation of the Clinical and Epidemiologic Literature.

Messina M1.

Author information

Abstract

Soyfoods have long been recognized as sources of high-quality protein and healthful fat, but over the past 25 years these foods have been rigorously investigated for their role in chronic disease prevention and treatment. There is evidence, for example, that they reduce risk of coronary heart disease and breast and prostate cancer. In addition, soy alleviates hot flashes and may favorably affect renal function, alleviate depressive symptoms and improve skin health. Much of the focus on soyfoods is because they are uniquely-rich sources of isoflavones. Isoflavones are classified as both phytoestrogens and selective estrogen receptor modulators. Despite the many proposed benefits, the presence of isoflavones has led to concerns that soy may exert untoward effects in some individuals. However, these concerns are based primarily on animal studies, whereas the human research supports the safety and benefits of soyfoods. In support of safety is the recent conclusion of the European Food Safety Authority that isoflavones do not adversely affect the breast, thyroid or uterus of postmenopausal women. This review covers each of the major research areas involving soy focusing primarily on the clinical and epidemiologic research. Background information on Asian soy intake, isoflavones, and nutrient content is also provided.

 

 

 

 

 

Isoflavones in food supplements for post-menopausal women: no evidence of harm

A comprehensive review of the available scientific evidence has revealed no indication that isoflavones at levels typically found in food supplements cause harm to post-menopausal women. Isoflavones are naturally occurring substances which are found, among other sources, in soy, red clover and kudzu root. Their extracts are often used as ingredients in nutritional supplements.

Dr Alicja Mortensen, Chair of the EFSA expert Panel on Food Additives (ANS), which carried out the assessment, stated: “The evidence reviewed does not suggest there are harmful effects on the three organs considered for this assessment – mammary gland, uterus and thyroid gland. We considered studies testing doses of isoflavones that are typically found in food supplements targeted at menopausal women in the EU.

“These conclusions were drawn on the basis of data collected on post-menopausal women and are supported by the results from animal studies.”

 

 

 

 

 

Postepy Hig Med Dosw (Online). 2017 Mar 2;71(0):149-161.

Cancer chemoprevention – selected molecular mechanisms.

Walczak K1Marciniak S1Rajtar G1.

Author information

Abstract

The effect of diet on cancer formation and prevention of carcinogenesis has attracted considerable attention for years and is the subject of several studies. Some components of the daily diet, such as resveratrol, curcumin, genistein, gingerol, can significantly reduce the risk of cancer or affect the rate of tumor progression. Cancer chemoprevention assumes the use of natural or synthetic biologically active substances in order to prevent, inhibit or reverse the progression of cancer. There are many biologically active compounds in several natural products, i.e. garlic, ginger, soy, curcuma, tomatoes, cruciferous plants or green tea. Their chemopreventive activity is based on the inhibition of processes underlying carcinogenesis (inflammation, transformation and proliferation), but also affects the final phase of carcinogenesis – angiogenesis and metastasis. Despite the relatively low toxicity of chemopreventive agents, their molecular targets often coincide with the objectives of the currently used cancer therapies. The widespread use of chemopreventive agents may contribute to reduction of the rate of cancer incidence, and increase the effectiveness of conventional cancer therapies. In the present study, selected molecular mechanisms of the chemopreventive activity have been discussed, especially their involvement in the regulation of signal transduction, cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, metastasis and angiogenesis. The role of chemopreventive agents in the inflammatory process, the metabolism of xenobiotics and multidrug resistance has been also characterized.

 

Br J Nutr. 2016 Dec;116(12):2115-2128. doi: 10.1017/S0007114516004360. Epub 2017 Jan 16.

Phyto-oestrogens and colorectal cancer risk: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of observational studies.

Jiang R1Botma A1Rudolph A1Hüsing A1Chang-Claude J1.

Author information

Abstract

Epidemiological studies suggest that soya consumption as a source of phyto-oestrogens and isoflavones may be associated with a reduced risk of colorectal cancer. However, findings have not yet been synthesised for all groups of phyto-oestrogens. A meta-analysis was conducted to quantify the association between phyto-oestrogens and colorectal cancer risk. Relevant observational studies published up to June 2016 were identified by searching MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Library databases. Study-specific relative risks (RR) were pooled in both categorical and dose-response meta-analyses. Out of seventeen identified studies, sixteen were included in the meta-analysis. Comparing the highest with the lowest intake category, inverse associations for phyto-oestrogens overall and by subgroup were observed but were statistically significant in case-controls studies and not in cohort studies. The pooled RR in case-control studies were 0·76 (95 % CI 0·69, 0·84), 0·77 (95 % CI 0·69, 0·85) and 0·70 (95 % CI 0·56, 0·89) for phyto-oestrogens, isoflavones and lignans, respectively, whereas the corresponding pooled RR were 0·95 (95 % CI 0·85, 1·06), 0·94 (95 % CI 0·84, 1·05) and 1·00 (95 % CI 0·64, 1·57) in cohort studies. Dose-response analysis yielded an 8 % reduced risk of colorectal neoplasms for every 20 mg/d increase in isoflavones intake in Asians (pooled RR 0·92; 95 % CI 0·86, 0·97). A non-linear inverse association with colorectal cancer risk was found for lignans intake, but no association for circulating enterolactone concentrations was observed. Thus, study heterogeneity precludes a rigorous conclusion regarding an effect of high exposure to isoflavones on risk of colorectal cancer. Current evidence for an association with lignans exposure is limited. Further prospective studies, particularly evaluating lignans, are warranted to clarify the association between different phyto-oestrogens and colorectal cancer risk

 

Br J Nutr. 2014 Apr 28;111(8):1430-40. doi: 10.1017/S0007114513003899. Epub 2013 Dec 13.

Dietary phyto-oestrogens and the risk of ovarian and endometrial cancers: findings from two Australian case-control studies.

Neill AS1Ibiebele TI1Lahmann PH1Hughes MC1Nagle CM1Webb PM1Australian Ovarian Cancer Study Group and Australian National Endometrial Cancer Study Group.

Author information

Abstract

Phyto-oestrogens have been suggested to have a protective effect on hormone-sensitive cancers. However, few studies have investigated the association between dietary phyto-oestrogens and gynaecological cancers. In the present study, we analysed data from two population-based case-control studies of ovarian (1366 cases and 1414 controls) and endometrial (1288 cases and 1435 controls) cancers. Dietary intake information was obtained using a 135-item FFQ, and phyto-oestrogen intake was estimated using published food composition databases. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted OR and 95% CI. In multivariable analyses, there was a suggestive pattern of inverse associations between increasing intakes of total phyto-oestrogens, isoflavones and enterolignans and the risk of ovarian cancer. However, the results only reached statistical significance for the lignan compounds matairesinol and lariciresinol, where the OR for the highest v. the lowest intake category was 0.72 (95% CI 0.54, 0.96; P for trend = 0.02) for matairesinol and 0.72 (95% CI 0.55, 0.96; P for trend = 0.03) for lariciresinol. When the risk of ovarian cancer was assessed by subtype, there was an indication that increasing intakes of phyto-oestrogens may be associated with a decreased risk of mucinous (cases n 158) ovarian tumours (OR for the highest v. the lowest intake category: 0.47 (95% CI 0.24, 0.93); P for trend = 0.04). However, there were no significant associations with other histological subtypes. In contrast, dietary phyto-oestrogens (total or any subclass) were unrelated to the risk of endometrial cancer cases overall or by subtype.

 

 

SOIA E PROSTATA

Int J Oncol. 2017 May 24. doi: 10.3892/ijo.2017.4017. [Epub ahead of print]

Effects of genistein supplementation on genome‑wide DNA methylation and gene expression in patients with localized prostate cancer.

Bilir B1Sharma NV1Lee J1Hammarstrom B2Svindland A3Kucuk O4Moreno CS1.

Author information

Abstract

Epidemiological studies have shown that dietary compounds have significant effects on prostate carcinogenesis. Among dietary agents, genistein, the major isoflavone in soybean, is of particular interest because high consumption of soy products has been associated with a low incidence of prostate cancer, suggesting a preventive role of genistein in prostate cancer. In spite of numerous studies to understand the effects of genistein on prostate cancer, the mechanisms of action have not been fully elucidated. We investigated the differences in methylation and gene expression levels of prostate specimens from a clinical trial of genistein supplementation prior to prostatectomy using Illumina HumanMethylation450 and Illumina HumanHT-12 v4 Expression BeadChip Microarrays. The present study was a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial on Norwegian patients who received 30 mg genistein or placebo capsules daily for 3-6 weeks before prostatectomy. Gene expression changes were validated by quantitative PCR (qPCR). Whole genome methylation and expression profiling identified differentially methylated sites and expressed genes between placebo and genistein groups. Differentially regulated genes were involved in developmental processes, stem cell markers, proliferation and transcriptional regulation. Enrichment analysis suggested overall reduction in MYC activity and increased PTEN activity in genistein-treated patients. These findings highlight the effects of genistein on global changes in gene expression in prostate cancer and its effects on molecular pathways involved in prostate tumorigenesis.

 

Soy Phytoestrogens on DNA Methylation in Prostate Cancer

 

Marine Daures1,2, Marjolaine Ngollo1,2, Mouhamed Idrissou1,2, Gaëlle Judes1,2, Khaldoun Rifaï1,2, Frédérique Penault-Llorca2,3, Yves Jean Bignon1,2, Laurent Guy2,4 and Dominique Bernard- Gallon1,2*

1Department of Oncogenetics, Centre Jean Perrin, 63001 Clermont-Ferrand, France

 

10.3892/ijo.2017.4017

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Nutrients. 2010 Aug;2(8):855-88. doi: 10.3390/nu2080855. Epub 2010 Aug 6.

The role of soy in vegetarian diets.

Messina M1Messina V.

Author information

Abstract

Soyfoods have long been prized among vegetarians for both their high protein content and versatility. Soybeans differ markedly in macronutrient content from other legumes, being much higher in fat and protein, and lower in carbohydrate. In recent years however, soyfoods and specific soybean constituents, especially isoflavones, have been the subject of an impressive amount of research. Nearly 2,000 soy-related papers are published annually. This research has focused primarily on the benefits that soyfoods may provide independent of their nutrient content. There is particular interest in the role that soyfoods have in reducing risk of heart disease, osteoporosis and certain forms of cancer. However, the estrogen-like effects of isoflavones observed in animal studies have also raised concerns about potential harmful effects of soyfood consumption. This review addresses questions related to soy and chronic disease risk, provides recommendations for optimal intakes, and discusses potential contraindications. As reviewed, the evidence indicates that, with the exception of those individuals allergic to soy protein, soyfoods can play a beneficial role in the diets of vegetarians. Concerns about adverse effects are not supported by the clinical or epidemiologic literature. Based on the soy intake associated with health benefits in the epidemiologic studies and the benefits noted in clinical trials, optimal adult soy intake would appear to be between two and four servings per day.

 

 

 

 

 

Nutr Rev. 2003 Jan;61(1):1-33.

Soy isoflavones: a safety review.

Munro IC1Harwood MHlywka JJStephen AMDoull JFlamm WGAdlercreutz H.

Author information

Abstract

Soy isoflavones have been a component of the diet of certain populations for centuries. The consumption of soy generally has been considered beneficial, with a potentially protective effect against a number of chronic diseases; because of their estrogenic activity, however, negative effects of isoflavones have been postulated. This review examines the literature associated with the safety of soy isoflavones, including dietary soy isoflavone exposure data of populations with high soy intakes, human studies in which soy protein or isoflavones were provided, and toxicologic studies investigating the potential genotoxicity, carcinogenicity, and reproductive and developmental toxicity of soy isoflavones. Whereas results in some studies are limited or conflicting, when viewed in its entirety, the current literature supports the safety of isoflavones as typically consumed in diets based on soy or containing soy products.

J Nutr. 2010 Dec;140(12):2289S-2295S. doi: 10.3945/jn.110.124107. Epub 2010 Oct 27.

Insights gained from 20 years of soy research.

Messina M1.

Author information

Abstract

Soyfoods have long been recognized for their high-protein and low-saturated fat content, but over the past 20 y an impressive amount of soy-related research has evaluated the role of these foods in reducing chronic disease risk. Much of this research has been undertaken because the soybean is essentially a unique dietary source of isoflavones, a group of chemicals classified as phytoestrogens. The estrogen-like properties of isoflavones have also raised concern, however, that soyfoods might exert adverse effects in some individuals. There is intriguing animal and epidemiologic evidence indicating that modest amounts of soy consumed during childhood and/or adolescence reduces breast cancer risk. Evidence also suggests that soy reduces prostate cancer risk and inhibits prostate tumor metastasis, but additional clinical support for the chemopreventive effects of soyfoods is needed. Soy protein is modestly hypocholesterolemic and there is suggestive epidemiologic evidence that soyfoods lower risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) independent of effects on cholesterol. In clinical studies, soy favorably affects multiple CHD risk factors; however, with the exception of improved endothelial function, the data are too limited and/or inconsistent to allow definitive conclusions to be made. In regard to bone health, although recent clinical data have not supported the skeletal benefits of isoflavones, 2 large prospective epidemiologic studies found soy intake is associated with marked reductions in fracture risk. Soybean isoflavones also modestly alleviate hot flashes in menopausal women. Finally, other than allergic reactions, there is almost no credible evidence to suggest traditional soyfoods exert clinically relevant adverse effects in healthy individuals when consumed in amounts consistent with Asian intake.

 

Eur J Nutr. 2014 Feb;53(1):135-48. doi: 10.1007/s00394-013-0509-7. Epub 2013 Mar 7.

Soy protein inhibits inflammation-induced VCAM-1 and inflammatory cytokine induction by inhibiting the NF-κB and AKT signaling pathway in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice.

Burris RL1Ng HPNagarajan S.

Author information

Abstract

PURPOSE:

Inflammation is a hallmark of many diseases, such as atherosclerosis, autoimmune diseases, obesity, and cancer. Isoflavone-free soy protein diet (SPI(-)) has been shown to reduce atherosclerotic lesions in a hyperlipidemic mouse model compared to casein (CAS)-fed mice, despite unchanged serum lipid levels. However, possible mechanisms contributing to the athero-protective effect of soy protein remain unknown. Therefore, we investigated whether and how SPI(-) diet inhibits inflammatory responses associated with atherosclerosis.

METHODS:

Apolipoprotein E knockout (apoE-/-) mice (5-week) were fed CAS or SPI(-) diet for 1 or 5 week to determine LPS- and hyperlipidemia-induced acute and chronic inflammatory responses, respectively. Expression of NF-κB-dependent inflammation mediators such as VCAM-1, TNF-α, and MCP-1 were determined in aorta and liver. NF-κB, MAP kinase, and AKT activation was determined to address mechanisms contributing to the anti-inflammatory properties of soy protein/peptides.

RESULTS:

Isoflavone-free soy protein diet significantly reduced LPS-induced VCAM-1 mRNA and protein expression in aorta compared to CAS-fed mice. Reduced VCAM-1 expression in SPI(-)-fed mice also paralleled attenuated monocyte adhesion to vascular endothelium, a critical and primary processes during inflammation. Notably, VCAM-1 mRNA and protein expression in lesion-prone aortic arch was significantly reduced in apoE-/- mice fed SPI(-) for 5 weeks compared with CAS-fed mice. Moreover, dietary SPI(-) potently inhibited LPS-induced NF-κB activation and the subsequent upregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, and MCP-1. Interestingly, SPI(-) inhibited NF-κB-dependent inflammatory responses by targeting I-κB phosphorylation and AKT activation with no effect on MAP kinase pathway. Of the five putative soy peptides, four of the soy peptides inhibited LPS-induced VCAM-1, IL-6, IL-8, and MCP-1 protein expression in human vascular endothelial cells in vitro.

CONCLUSIONS:

Collectively, our findings suggest that anti-inflammatory properties of component(s) of soy protein/peptides may be a possible mechanism for the prevention of chronic inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis.

Thyroid. 2006 Mar;16(3):249-58.

Effects of soy protein and soybean isoflavones on thyroid function in healthy adults and hypothyroid patients: a review of the relevant literature.

Messina M1Redmond G.

Author information

Abstract

Soy foods are a traditional staple of Asian diets but because of their purported health benefits they have become popular in recent years among non-Asians, especially postmenopausal women. There are many bioactive soybean components that may contribute to the hypothesized health benefits of soy but most attention has focused on the isoflavones, which have both hormonal and nonhormonal properties. However, despite the possible benefits concerns have been expressed that soy may be contraindicated for some subsets of the population. One concern is that soy may adversely affect thyroid function and interfere with the absorption of synthetic thyroid hormone. Thus, the purpose of this review is to evaluate the relevant literature and provide the clinician guidance for advising their patients about the effects of soy on thyroid function. In total, 14 trials (thyroid function was not the primary health outcome in any trial) were identified in which the effects of soy foods or isoflavones on at least one measure of thyroid function was assessed in presumably healthy subjects; eight involved women only, four involved men, and two both men and women. With only one exception, either no effects or only very modest changes were noted in these trials. Thus, collectively the findings provide little evidence that in euthyroid, iodine-replete individuals, soy foods, or isoflavones adversely affect thyroid function. In contrast, some evidence suggests that soy foods, by inhibiting absorption, may increase the dose of thyroid hormone required by hypothyroid patients. However, hypothyroid adults need not avoid soy foods. In addition, there remains a theoretical concern based on in vitro and animal data that in individuals with compromised thyroid function and/or whose iodine intake is marginal soy foods may increase risk of developing clinical hypothyroidism. Therefore, it is important for soy food consumers to make sure their intake of iodine is adequate.

J Med Food. 2003 Winter;6(4):309-16.

Isoflavone supplements do not affect thyroid function in iodine-replete postmenopausal women.

Bruce B1Messina MSpiller GA.

Author information

Abstract

Despite the safety review conducted by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in the process of awarding a health claim for the cholesterol-lowering properties of soy protein, concerns about the possible goitrogenic effects of soybean isoflavones persist. Concerns are based primarily on in vitro research, animal studies, and older reports of goiter in infants fed soy formula not fortified with iodine. In a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled study, we investigated the effect on thyroid function of a daily supplement containing 90 mg (aglycone weight) of total isoflavones/day versus placebo in 38 postmenopausal women, 64-83 years old, not on hormone replacement therapy. Serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroxine (T4), and triiodothyronine (T3) were measured at baseline and after 90 and 180 days. In the supplement group, at baseline and 6 months, TSH (micro U/ml), T4 (nM), and T3 (nM) levels (mean +/- SE) were 3.00 +/- 0.44, 149.00 +/- 5.04, and 1.53 +/- 0.13, respectively, and 3.49 +/- 0.52, 154.52 +/- 2.09, and 1.78 +/- 0.12, respectively. In the control group, levels at baseline and at 6 months were 3.35 +/- 0.51, 145.39 +/- 6.69, and 1.55 +/- 0.18, respectively, and 3.63 +/- 0.57, 153.77 +/- 6.64, and 1.75 +/- 0.10, respectively. Intragroup differences for all three measures were statistically indistinguishable at 6 months, and levels were similar between the isoflavone supplement and placebo groups at each measurement. These results indicate that in this group of healthy iodine-replete subjects, soy isoflavones do not adversely affect thyroid function.

 

 

 

J Nutr. 2001 Nov;131(11 Suppl):3095S-108S.

Soy for breast cancer survivors: a critical review of the literature.

Messina MJ1Loprinzi CL.

Author information

Abstract

A variety of health benefits, including protection against breast cancer, have been attributed to soy food consumption, primarily because of the soybean isoflavones (genistein, daidzein, glycitein). Isoflavones are considered to be possible selective estrogen receptor modulators but possess nonhormonal properties that also may contribute to their effects. Concern has arisen over a possible detrimental effect of soy in breast cancer patients because of the estrogen-like effects of isoflavones. Genistein exhibits a biphasic effect on the growth of MCF-7 cells in vitro, stimulating proliferation at low concentrations but inhibiting it at high concentrations. In ovariectomized athymic mice implanted with MCF-7 cells, both genistein and soy protein stimulate tumor growth in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, in intact mice fed estrogen, genistein inhibits tumor growth. Although two studies in premenopausal women suggested that soy exerts estrogenic-like effects on breast tissue, recently conducted year-long studies indicated that isoflavone supplements do not affect breast tissue density in premenopausal women and may decrease density in postmenopausal women. These latter effects are opposite to those of hormone replacement therapy (HRT). Importantly, substantial data suggest that the progestogen, not the estrogen, component of HRT increases risk of developing breast cancer. Furthermore, recently conducted studies have failed to find that even HRT reduces survival in breast cancer patients. Overall, the data are not impressive that the adult consumption of soy affects the risk of developing breast cancer or that soy consumption affects the survival of breast cancer patients. Consequently, if breast cancer patients enjoy soy products, it seems reasonable for them to continue to use them.

 

 

 

SOIA E TIROIDE

 

Thyroid. 2006 Mar;16(3):249-58.

Effects of soy protein and soybean isoflavones on thyroid function in healthyadults and hypothyroid patients: a review of the relevant literature.

Messina M1Redmond G.

Author information

Abstract

Soy foods are a traditional staple of Asian diets but because of their purported health benefits they have become popular in recent years among non-Asians, especially postmenopausal women. There are many bioactive soybean components that may contribute to the hypothesized health benefits of soy but most attention has focused on the isoflavones, which have both hormonal and nonhormonal properties. However, despite the possible benefits concerns have been expressed that soy may be contraindicated for some subsets of the population. One concern is that soy may adversely affect thyroid function and interfere with the absorption of synthetic thyroid hormone. Thus, the purpose of this review is to evaluate the relevant literature and provide the clinician guidance for advising their patients about the effects of soy on thyroid function. In total, 14 trials (thyroidfunction was not the primary health outcome in any trial) were identified in which the effects of soy foods or isoflavones on at least one measure of thyroid function was assessed in presumably healthy subjects; eight involved women only, four involved men, and two both men and women. With only one exception, either no effects or only very modest changes were noted in these trials. Thus, collectively the findings provide little evidence that in euthyroid, iodine-replete individuals, soy foods, or isoflavones adversely affect thyroid function. In contrast, some evidence suggests that soy foods, by inhibiting absorption, may increase the dose of thyroid hormone required by hypothyroid patients. However, hypothyroid adults need not avoid soy foods. In addition, there remains a theoretical concern based on in vitro and animal data that in individuals with compromised thyroid function and/or whose iodine intake is marginal soy foods may increase risk of developing clinical hypothyroidism. Therefore, it is important for soy food consumers to make sure their intake of iodine is adequate.

J Med Food. 2003 Winter;6(4):309-16.

Isoflavone supplements do not affect thyroid function in iodine-replete postmenopausal women.

Bruce B1Messina MSpiller GA.

Author information

Abstract

Despite the safety review conducted by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in the process of awarding a health claim for the cholesterol-lowering properties of soy protein, concerns about the possible goitrogenic effects of soybean isoflavones persist. Concerns are based primarily on in vitro research, animal studies, and older reports of goiter in infants fed soy formula not fortified with iodine. In a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled study, we investigated the effect on thyroid function of a daily supplement containing 90 mg (aglycone weight) of total isoflavones/day versus placebo in 38 postmenopausal women, 64-83 years old, not on hormone replacement therapy. Serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroxine (T4), and triiodothyronine (T3) were measured at baseline and after 90 and 180 days. In the supplement group, at baseline and 6 months, TSH (micro U/ml), T4 (nM), and T3 (nM) levels (mean +/- SE) were 3.00 +/- 0.44, 149.00 +/- 5.04, and 1.53 +/- 0.13, respectively, and 3.49 +/- 0.52, 154.52 +/- 2.09, and 1.78 +/- 0.12, respectively. In the control group, levels at baseline and at 6 months were 3.35 +/- 0.51, 145.39 +/- 6.69, and 1.55 +/- 0.18, respectively, and 3.63 +/- 0.57, 153.77 +/- 6.64, and 1.75 +/- 0.10, respectively. Intragroup differences for all three measures were statistically indistinguishable at 6 months, and levels were similar between the isoflavone supplement and placebo groups at each measurement. These results indicate that in this group of healthy iodine-replete subjects, soy isoflavones do not adversely affect thyroid function.

 

PROTEINE DELLA SOIA ANTINFIAMMATORIE

Eur J Nutr. 2014 Feb;53(1):135-48. doi: 10.1007/s00394-013-0509-7. Epub 2013 Mar 7.

Soy protein inhibits inflammation-induced VCAM-1 and inflammatory cytokineinduction by inhibiting the NF-κB and AKT signaling pathway in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice.

Burris RL1Ng HPNagarajan S.

Author information

Abstract

PURPOSE:

Inflammation is a hallmark of many diseases, such as atherosclerosis, autoimmune diseases, obesity, and cancer. Isoflavone-free soy protein diet (SPI(-)) has been shown to reduce atherosclerotic lesions in a hyperlipidemic mouse model compared to casein (CAS)-fed mice, despite unchanged serum lipid levels. However, possible mechanisms contributing to the athero-protective effect of soy protein remain unknown. Therefore, we investigated whether and how SPI(-) diet inhibits inflammatory responses associated with atherosclerosis.

METHODS:

Apolipoprotein E knockout (apoE-/-) mice (5-week) were fed CAS or SPI(-) diet for 1 or 5 week to determine LPS- and hyperlipidemia-induced acute and chronic inflammatory responses, respectively. Expression of NF-κB-dependent inflammation mediators such as VCAM-1, TNF-α, and MCP-1 were determined in aorta and liver. NF-κB, MAP kinase, and AKT activation was determined to address mechanisms contributing to the anti-inflammatory properties of soy protein/peptides.

RESULTS:

Isoflavone-free soy protein diet significantly reduced LPS-induced VCAM-1 mRNA and protein expression in aorta compared to CAS-fed mice. Reduced VCAM-1 expression in SPI(-)-fed mice also paralleled attenuated monocyte adhesion to vascular endothelium, a critical and primary processes during inflammation. Notably, VCAM-1 mRNA and protein expression in lesion-prone aortic arch was significantly reduced in apoE-/- mice fed SPI(-) for 5 weeks compared with CAS-fed mice. Moreover, dietary SPI(-) potently inhibited LPS-induced NF-κB activation and the subsequent upregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, and MCP-1. Interestingly, SPI(-) inhibited NF-κB-dependent inflammatory responses by targeting I-κB phosphorylation and AKT activation with no effect on MAP kinase pathway. Of the five putative soy peptides, four of the soy peptides inhibited LPS-induced VCAM-1, IL-6, IL-8, and MCP-1 protein expression in human vascular endothelial cells in vitro.

CONCLUSIONS:

Collectively, our findings suggest that anti-inflammatory properties of component(s) of soyprotein/peptides may be a possible mechanism for the prevention of chronic inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis.

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Pubblicato in Naturopatia, News

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